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The impact of cardiac rhythm on the mitral valve area and gradient in patients with mitral stenosis [Anatol J Cardiol]
Anatol J Cardiol. 2017; 18(2): 90-98 | DOI: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2017.7614  

The impact of cardiac rhythm on the mitral valve area and gradient in patients with mitral stenosis

Hasan Arı, Selma Arı, Alper Karakuş, Sencer Camcı, Kübra Doğanay, Ahmet Tütüncü, Mehmet Melek, Tahsin Bozat
Department of Cardiology, Bursa Postgraduate Hospital; Bursa-Turkey

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cardiac rhythm on the echocardiographic mitral valve area (MVA) and transmitral gradient calculation in relation to net atrioventricular compliance (Cn).
Methods: Patients (n=22) with mild or moderate pure rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) (MVA <2 cm2 and MVA >1 cm2) and atrial fibrillation (AF) were evaluated. All patients underwent transthoracic electrical DC cardioversion under amiodarone treatment. Nineteen of the 22 patients were successfully converted to sinus rhythm (SR). The patients were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography before and two to three days after DC cardioversion. In order to deal with variable R-R intervals, the measurements were averaged on five to eight consecutive beats in AF. Cn was calculated with a previously validated equation [Cn (mL/mm Hg)=1.270 x MVA/E-wave downslope]. The Cn difference between AF and SR was calculated as follows: [(AF Cn−SR Cn)/AF Cn] x 100. The percentage gradient (mean or maximal) difference between AF and SR was calculated as follows: [AF gradient (mean or maximal) – SR gradient (mean or maximal)]/[AF gradient (mean or maximal)] x 100.
Results: The MVA was lower (MVA planimetric; 1.62±0.29 vs. 1.54±0.27; p=.003, MVA PHT; 1.66±0.30 vs. 1.59±0.26; p=0.01) but transmitral gradient (mean gradient; 6.49±2.51 vs. 8.89±3.52; p=0.001, maximal gradient: 16.94±5.11 vs. 18.57±4.54; p=0.01) and Cn values (5.37±0.77 vs. 6.26±0.64; p<0.001) were higher in the AF than SR. There was a significant correlation between Cn difference and transmitral gradient difference (mean and maximal) (Cn difference–mean gradient difference; r=0.46; p=0.05; Cn difference–maximal gradient difference; r=0.72; p=0.001).
Conclusion: Cardiac rhythm has a significant impact on echocardiographic evaluation of MVA, transmitral gradient, and Cn in patients with MS.

Keywords: echocardiography, mitral stenosis, atrial fibrillation


Hasan Arı, Selma Arı, Alper Karakuş, Sencer Camcı, Kübra Doğanay, Ahmet Tütüncü, Mehmet Melek, Tahsin Bozat. The impact of cardiac rhythm on the mitral valve area and gradient in patients with mitral stenosis. Anatol J Cardiol. 2017; 18(2): 90-98

Corresponding Author: Hasan Arı, Türkiye


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