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Association of female sex and heart rate with increased arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [Anatol J Cardiol]
Anatol J Cardiol. 2017; 18(5): 347-352 | DOI: 10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2017.7773  

Association of female sex and heart rate with increased arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Min- Kyung Kang1, Jae Myung Yu2, Kwang Jin Chun3, Jaehuk Choi4, Seonghoon Choi1, Namho Lee1, Jung Rae Cho1
1Department of Cardiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul-South Korea
2Department of Endocrinology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul-South Korea
3Department of Cardiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Seoul-South Korea
4Division of Cardiology, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul-South Korea

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with increased arterial stiffness (IAS) measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and its clinical implications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study. The ankle–brachial PWV was used to measure arterial stiffness, and 310 patients (mean age, 49±9 years; 180 men) with type 2 DM were divided into two groups according to the results of PWV: Group 1 (IAS; n=214) and Group 2 (normal arterial stiffness; n=96).
Results: Patients in Group 1 were predominantly females (48% vs. 28%, p=0.001) and showed higher blood pressure and faster heart rate (HR). The glomerular filtration rate was lower and the urine microalbumin level was higher in patients with IAS. In multiple regression analysis, female sex and faster HR were independently associated with IAS. In subgroup analysis among female patients, prior stroke was more common in patients with IAS, and faster HR and increased postprandial 2-h C-peptide level were independently associated with IAS.
Conclusion: Female sex and faster HR were independently associated with IAS in patients with type 2 DM. In a subgroup analysis among female patients, prior stroke was more common in patients with IAS, and faster HR and elevated postprandial 2-h C-peptide level were found to be independently associated with IAS.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pulse wave velocity, heart rate


Min- Kyung Kang, Jae Myung Yu, Kwang Jin Chun, Jaehuk Choi, Seonghoon Choi, Namho Lee, Jung Rae Cho. Association of female sex and heart rate with increased arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Anatol J Cardiol. 2017; 18(5): 347-352

Corresponding Author: Jung Rae Cho, South Korea


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